When the foot is twisted, the soft tissues can tear or the bones can break or both. Since the ankle joint is so tightly fitted together, even a displacement of the bones by as little as 1 mm can cause a significant increase in the abnormal forces across the joint, eventually leading to arthritis. When the bones break, swelling and instability occur. Ice, elevation and support are the initial steps. The definitive treatment is based on the fracture pattern and the degree of displacement. Early accurate reduction of the fracture and support with a splint or surgical plates and screws are extremely important. X-rays, MRI and CT scans are used to define the fracture patterns. Accuracy in diagnosis and treatment are the key to a successful outcome.
You are told you have knee arthritis. The advice the doctor gives you is to go home, rest your knee, take anti-inflammatory drugs, lose some weight, wait until you are older and then get an artificial knee replacement. This advice is awful. Here's why.
Classic blood doping—the injection of additional blood cells to increase oxygen in the muscle—is illegal in Olympic sports. Yet, legal blood doping is all the rage at the 2018 PyeongChang Olympics. Here is how it works.