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Stem cells

What is a stem cell?

Stem cells are pericytes, or cells that live on the walls of vessels.  The more vascular a tissue is the more stem cells it has, so fat and bone marrow have the highest concentration.  While embryonic stems cells can transform into any tissue, adult stem cells are primarily “medicinal cells” in that they produce growth factors, anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics, and other tissue stimulating proteins.  The primary use of stem cells at The Stone Clinic is to stimulate tissue and cartilage repair.

Amniotic Stem Cell Injections

Stem cells are potent growth factor producers and also participate in tissue healing and remodeling. We initially only isolated these cells from the bone marrow however data has shown that with aging the concentration of the stem cells that are potent declines precipitously each year. While we often release these marrow stem cells at the time of surgical repair, in the office a frozen source of amniotic stem cells is now available. One cc of amniotic stem cells contains two million active amniotic stem cells and 2-50 times the concentration of growth factors found in platelet preparations.

What is PRP?

PRP or platelet rich plasma is growth factor rich  component of blood released from platelets. To obtain PRP we draw venous blood from the arm, spin the blood and concentrate the platelets.  An additive stimulates those platelets to release growth factors. This concentrate is then injected into the tissue or joint.  Often we combine the growth factors with hyaluronic acid, a natural lubricant.

Other stem cell-based therapies

We use stem cells to improve the healing response in our articular cartilage paste grafting technique. In an arthritic or chondral lesion, marrow stem cells are exposed. A paste graft of cartilage and bone is mixed with those marrow cells to stimulate healing. We also release marrow stem cells to speed the healing of meniscus tears. At times difficult to repair tears can be successfully repaired with growth factor and stem cell augmentation.

What do we know about orthopedic stem cells?

Essentially, stem cells deliver the growth factors to the repair site. There, the stem cell either produces or recruits the growth factors that speed up the rate of repair and increase the quality of tissue regenerated.

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Kevin R. Stone · Jonathan R. Pelsis · Scott T. Surrette · Ann W. Walgenbach · Thomas J. Turek 

Stone, K.R., A.W. Walgenbach, T.J. Turek, A. Freyer, and M.D. Hill. 2006.